Published 1985 by Stanford University Center for the Study of Language and Information in Stanford, Ca .
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|Series||Report -- no.CLSI-85-28|
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Download Restrictive and non-restrictive modification.
(Non)restrictivity is rarely explicitly defined in works devoted to (non)restrictive modification, but the traditional intuition behind this notion is generally clear: a modifier M restrictively modifies the head H when the contextual set of objects denoted by the modified head MH is properly included in the contextual set of objects denoted by by: 4.
Non-restrictive modifications may ap- pear in various forms, e.g. as relative clauses, appositions, or attributive adjectives. In this paper the focus is on attributive adjectives.
non-restrictive or appositive ones are accounted for by positing that restrictive operators move to C0 while non-restrictive operators and pied-piped elements in general move to [Spec,CP]. Both restrictive and non-restrictive operators must check off a [+wh]-feature with an EPP property, but whereas such a feature is specified as [+subjective.
In contrast, a non-restrictive modifier supplies additional information about something that has already been identified. A restrictive modifier couldn’t be left out without confusing the meaning; a non-restrictive modifier could be. Non-restrictive modifiers are enclosed in commas, showing where the modifier begins and ends.
Restrictive. Not all the galaxy's stars are confined to the galactic plane. There are a few stars that occur far above or below the disk"Astronomy," Compton's Encyclopedia Nonrestrictive. Johnson Corporation, which makes Johnson Wax and Raid, the antiroach product, bre roaches a week and plays host to up to a million roaches at any one time.
Relative Clause. This is a clause that generally modifies a noun or a noun phrase and is often introduced by a relative pronoun (which, that, who, whom, whose).A relative clause connects ideas by using pronouns that relate to something previously mentioned and allows the writer to combine two independent clauses into one sentence.
A relative clause is also known as an adjective clause. A restrictive clause modifies the noun that precedes it in an essential way. Restrictive clauses limit or identify such nouns and cannot be removed from a sentence without changing the sentence’s meaning.
A nonrestrictive clause, on the other hand, describes a noun in a nonessential way. Restrictive and non-restrictive modification. book / nonrestrictive. The Dark is Rising written by one of my favorite authors is at the top of my pile of books to read.
restrictive / nonrestrictive. The apples grown in that orchard are grown without pesticides. restrictive / nonrestrictive. This vase purchased at a flea market turned out to be worth a lot of money.
Restrictive Modifier (or Defining Modifier) A restrictive modifier is a word, phrase, or clause that defines another element.
A restrictive modifier is essential for meaning. If a restrictive modifier were to be removed, readers would be left with a question like "Which one are we talking about?". restrictive / nonrestrictive. The epic poem Beowulf is an exciting story that was written in Old English.
restrictive / nonrestrictive. The red panda not a relative of the giant panda lives in the Himalayas. restrictive / nonrestrictive. The Hungarian actor Bela Lugosi was famous for playing Count Dracula. restrictive / nonrestrictive.
RESTRICTIVE ELEMENTS Restrictive elements are word groups that are necessary to retain meaning. They are not set off from the rest of the sentence by commas or other punctuation. INCORRECT: William Faulkner's novel, Light in August, is my favorite book.
CORRECTED: William Faulkner's novel Light in August is my favorite book. The key difference between restrictive and nonrestrictive clause is that the restrictive clause provides essential information to a sentence whereas the nonrestrictive clause provides additional information to a sentence.
Restrictive clauses and nonrestrictive clauses are two types of relative clauses, which are introduced by a relative pronoun. Relative clauses act as adjectives since.
Restrictive Clauses A restrictive clause functions like an adjective. It is used to further identify the noun it is modifying. It provides additional information for the noun it is describing. Without a restrictive clause, the sentence will appear to be missing important information.
Commas are not necessary when using a restrictive clause. ‘The semantic distinction between restrictive and non-restrictive modification applies to adjectives that modify nouns as well as to relative clauses.’ Usage.
What is the difference between the books that were on the table once belonged to my aunt and the books, which were on the table, once belonged to my aunt. In the first sentence, the. "RCs are usually divided into restrictive as in (4) and non-restrictive, as in (5) and (6): (5) Hillary Clinton, who just returned from a trip to Cuba, intends to write a book.
(6) Queen Elizabeth the first, who was born inwas the last sovereign of the house of Tudor. Apposition is a grammatical construction in which two elements, normally noun phrases, are placed side by side, with one element serving to identify the other in a different way; the two elements are said to be in of the elements is called the appositive, although its identification requires consideration of how the elements are used in a sentence.
Non-restrictive modification has not, however, yet figured in the psycho- or neurolinguistic research on syntax and semantics. The LATL as a locus of composition. A large body of neurolinguistic work has focused on understanding the internal architecture of composition.
‘The semantic distinction between restrictive and non-restrictive modification applies to adjectives that modify nouns as well as to relative clauses.’ Usage. What is the difference between the books which were on the table once belonged to my aunt and the books. Restrictive vs. Nonrestrictive Clauses.
If you're still confused about the difference between a restrictive and nonrestrictive relative clause, perhaps this excerpt from Ammon Shea's Bad English will help: "To make this as short and brutal an explanation as possible, think of a restrictive clause as a liver: a vital organ of the sentence that cannot be removed without killing it.
Restrictive Clause. The same underlying concepts found in this article also apply to restrictive and nonrestrictive phrases.
A restrictive/essential clause is a clause that is essential to the meaning of the sentence element that it modifies or identifies. Post – modification by relative clause (finite clause) which can be restrictive or non – restrictive.
People who live in Vietnam are friendly and hospitable. Restrictive relative clause The boy who lives next door is very kind and polite. Restrictive relative clause Tom’s father, who is 78, goes swimming everyday. Non- restrictive.
Bound relative clauses may or may not be restrictive.A restrictive relative clause is a relative clause that functions as a restrictive modifier.A non-restrictive relative clause is a relative clause that is not a restrictive relative clause.
Whereas a non-restrictive or non-defining relative clause merely provides supplementary information, a restrictive or defining relative clause modifies. First, non-restrictive relatives must use relative pronouns whereas restrictive relatives also have a that/;complementizer option.
The relative pronoun strategy must be used in non-restrictive relatives to arrive at the proposi-tional denotation. Second, RPPP in non-restrictive relatives can be substantially larger than in restrictive relatives. One reason for this negligence might be that in non-quantified extensional contexts, a truth-conditional distinction between restrictive and appositive modification seems obsolete for indefinite antecedents under a classical Russellian analysis as existential quantifiers (see Geach, ).
1 However, for indefinites in the scope of. Section has shown that restrictive and non-restrictive relative clauses differ both in function and in form.
As far as function is concerned, restrictive relative clauses serve to restrict the referent set of the antecedent, whereas non-restrictive relative clauses simply provide additional information without restricting this referent set.
This analysis extends easily to the distinction between restrictive and non-restrictive relative clauses. being the ﬁrst book that semantics interface investigate e.g.
modification of. Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Clauses. STUDY. Flashcards. Learn. Write. Spell. Test. PLAY. Match. Gravity. Created by. kochs. Identify if it's restrictive or nonrestrictive. Terms in this set (11) The boys are students WHO ATTEND WASHINGTON ELEMENTARY.
Restrictive. Those two birds, WHICH APPEAR MOST MORNINGS BY THE FEEDER, are cardinals. Intensive and restrictive modification in old English.
[Sheila Most Ingersoll] Home. WorldCat Home About WorldCat Help. Search. Search for Library Items Search for Lists Search for Book: All Authors / Contributors: Sheila Most Ingersoll. Find more information about: ISBN: X The book which you see on the table is my favorite.
(Which book. – the one you see on the table) Such a relative clause which defines or identifies its antecedent (the noun phrase) is called a defining or restrictive relative clause.
Restrictive relative clauses follow. This covers the modification of indefinite pronouns like everyone as well as Turkish DPs with relative clauses whose determiner stands between the modifier and the NP argument. This analysis extends easily to the distinction between restrictive and non-restrictive relative clauses.
Nonrestrictive definition, not restrictive or limiting. See more. Comment : Restrictive. Do not separate. Tom Kinsella 1/29/11 PM Comment : Without contextual evidence to the contrary, I would consider this clause non-restrictive.
Tom Kinsella 1/29/11 PM This appositive might be seen as non-restrictive or paren-thetical. Either way it should be set apart. Tom Kinsella 1/29/11 PM. Restrictive & Non-Restrictive Modifiers Process What are they.
How are they used. Best Practices Quiz What are They. A NON-RESTRICTIVE modifier is information that is not essential to understanding a sentence. A Learning Experience It is information that can be removed, yet still. Restrictive and Non-Restrictive Adjective Clauses A restrictive adjective clause limits or narrows the meaning of the sentence in which it appears.
The sentence must have that clause or the meaning changes; in other words, the clause is necessary to the meaning. Because they are essential to the sentence, restrictive adjective clauses can never be set off from the sentence with punctuation.
A clause is called non-restrictive if it adds only parenthetical (that is, additional, non-essential) information to the sentence. For example, For example, Edgar Allan Poe, who wrote The Raven, was an American writer and poet.
Non-Restrictive Modiﬁcation Throughout the paper we follow Huddleston et al.’s () well-known distinction between two types of NP modiﬁers: (1) Restrictive modiﬁers, for which the content of the modiﬁer is an integral part of the meaning of the containing NP, and, in contrast, (2) Non-restrictive modiﬁers, that present.
Non-restrictive clauses provide extra information. You can remove a non-restrictive clause without changing the overall meaning of the sentence. Because the information is not essential, it is set apart from the rest of the sentence with commas, dashes, or parentheses.
1 ~ may begin with wh words (which, when, where, and who). They merely serve to provide some extra descriptive information. These are being used in a non-restrictive way.
I also think this shows that not all non-restrictive modifiers need to appear after the nouns (or whatever) they modify and be separated off with commas.
Here is the Wiki on restrictiveness. The first two paragraphs explain the. CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): This paper shows by a quantitative evaluation that non-restrictive modification in Japanese is a marked factor of prosody, and describes how to extract non-restrictive modification.
In Japanese, restrictive and non-restrictive modification have the same syntactic structure, so it is difficult to distinguish them. analysis of non-restrictive attributive adjectives should not be restricted to expressives. 3 Focus / Background As indicated in the beginning of the paper, non-restrictive attributive adjectives exhibit a parti-cular behavior with respect to focus and background.
In (4) and (5) there is a. (Result in a less restrictive way to manage and eliminate the behavior.) • Consider and document that benefits outweigh the potential harmful effects.
• Use only when positive procedures have been tried and are ineffective. Restrictive Interventions (continued) • Must be a behavior intervention plan when restrictive interventions are used.What are restrictive and non-restrictive elements?
[An element is a word, phrase, or clause, whose meaning either narrows the meaning of another part of the sentence (restrictive) or provides extra information (non-restrictive). Following are examples of sentences with the element in bold.
Non-Restrictive: The dog, which I rescued from the shelter, is named Terrance. Such post-modification can be restrictive (aka defining) or non-restrictive (aka non-defining). Both types are exemplified below. Restrictive (defining) post-modification by relative clauses (italicised) The girl who used to live next door has moved away.
This is the photograph that we took in Spain. Snakes which are poisonous should be avoided.